Prescription Pattern of Antibiotics in Paediatric Wards of a Tertiary Hospital in North West Nigeria: A Retrospective Study

  • Aliyu Hamidu Ahmed Usmanu Danfodiyo University
  • Umar Mukhtar Danmusa Ahmadu Bello University
  • yusuf Ibrahim Alkali Usmanu Danfodiyo University
Keywords: Antibiotics, Prescription, Septicemia, Bronchopneumonia


The main aim of this study was to evaluate the prescribing pattern of antibiotics in pediatric patients. A retrospective analysis of patients with bacterial infections admitted into the Paediatric Wards over a period of 3months. Files of 100 patients were randomly selected and included in this study. A proforma was used for data collection, information retrieved from patients records include: Demographic Data, Culture and Sensitivity pattern, Clinical Information, Duration of Hospital Stay, Outcome, type, Class and Route of administration of antibiotics. Out of the 100 patients included in this study, 35(35%) were below one year, 50(50%) were between 1-5years and 15(15%) were between 6-12years.  More patients between the ages of 1-5years were admitted with bacterial infections. Out of the 100 patients included in this study 63 (63%) were males and 37(37%) were females. Out of the 100 patients, 27(27%) had septicemia, 48(48%) bronchopneumonia, 6(6%) osteomyelitis, 14(14%) had mixed infections. The remaining patients had urinary tract infection, upper respiratory tract infection and typhoid enteritis. In a total of 229 prescriptions, only 38 (16.6%) were prescribed based on culture result. Most of the antibiotic prescriptions were based on clinical diagnosis, not on culture and sensitivity pattern. In present study 83% of antibiotics were administered by parenteral route and 17% by oral route. The Cephalosporins were the most prescribed antibiotics. Cefuroxime 63(27%) was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic. Ampicillin with Sulbactam was found to be the most frequently prescribed drug combination.

Author Biographies

Aliyu Hamidu Ahmed, Usmanu Danfodiyo University

Department of Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacy,
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Usmanu Danfodiyo University,
Sokoto- Nigeria

Umar Mukhtar Danmusa, Ahmadu Bello University

Ahmadu Bello University
Teaching Hospital Zaria, Kaduna-Nigeria

yusuf Ibrahim Alkali, Usmanu Danfodiyo University

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology,
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto- Nigeria


1. Choudhury D.K and Bezbaruah B.K (2013). Antibiotic Prescriptions Pattern in Paediatric In-Patient Department Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati. J App Pharm Sci, 3 (08): 144-148.
2. Deshmukh S. N and Mahajan M. M. (2016) A Study of Prescription Pattern of Antibiotics in Paediatric In-Patients at a tertiary care hospital in central India, International Journal of Pharmacological Research, ISSN: 2277-3312, IJPR Volume 6 Issue 08 286-289.
3. Dutta S, Bhattacharjee A, Devi M.N (2017). Prescription pattern of antibiotics in paediatric inpatients at a tertiary care hospital in North East India. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol; 6:2384-7.
4. Goodman & Gilman’s (2001). The Pharmacological basis of Therapeutics. McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division. 11th Edition; 1179-1206.
5. Kanish R, Gupta K, Juneja S, Bains H.S, Kaushal S (2014). Prescription pattern of antibiotics in the department of pediatrics in a tertiary care medical college and hospital in northern India. Asian journal of medical sciences. 5(4); 69-72
6. Kebede HK, Gesesew HA, Woldehaimanot TE, Goro KK (2017) Antimicrobial use in paediatric patients in a teaching hospital in Ethiopia. Plos ONE 12(3): e0173290. doi:10.1371/journal.
7. Laya V.R, Modupalli A (2015), Prescribing Pattern of Antibiotics in Pediatric Inpatient Department of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Bangalore, IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS) e-ISSN: 2278-3008, p-ISSN:2319-7676. Volume 10, Issue 4, 26-32
8. Leung E, Weil E.D, Raviglione M, Nakatani H (2011) The WHO policy package to combat antimicrobial resistance. Bulletin of the WHO 2011; 89:390-392.
9. Moorthi C, Paul P.R, Srinivasan A, Senthil C.K (2011). Irrational use of antibiotics in paediatric prescriptions: A pilot study at community pharmacy in Erode City. Der Pharmacia Lettre; 3(3):171-7.
10. Muenchhoff M & Gaulder P (2014). Sex difference in Pediatric Infectious Diseases. The Journal of Infectious Diseases; 209(S3): S120-6.
11. Palikhe, N (2004). Prescribing Pattern of Antibiotics in Paediatric Hospital of Kathmandu Valley. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council; 2(2):31-6.
12. Paluk E, Katzentein D, Frankish CJ, Herbert CP, Miler R, Speert D et al (2001). Prescription practices and attitudes toward giving children antibiotics. Can Fam Physician; 47:521-7.
13. Shamshy K, Begum I, Perumal P (2011). Drug utilization of antimicrobial drug in pediatrics population in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Erode, Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Pharma Tech Research; 3(3): 1530-1536.
14. Sriram S, Leo M, Manjula Devi A.S, Rajalingam B, Ramkumar K, Rajeswari R (2008). Assessment of Antibiotic Use in Pediatric Patients at a Tertiary care Teaching Hospital. Indian J. Pharm. Pract; 1 (1):30-6.
15. Thapaliya K, Shakti S, Sheela B, Damodar B, Ram K.C (2015), Prescribing Pattern Of Antibiotics In Pediatric Hospital In Chitwan District In Nepal World Journal Of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 4, Issue 11, 1631-1641
How to Cite
Ahmed, A., Danmusa, U. and Alkali, yusuf 2019. Prescription Pattern of Antibiotics in Paediatric Wards of a Tertiary Hospital in North West Nigeria: A Retrospective Study. PharmaTutor. 7, 7 (Jul. 2019), 1-6.